In essay I try to understand and present the importance of communal spaces in the refugee camps. My work is roughly divided into three chapters. In the first, UNHCR basic standards for planning an emergency settlement are illustrated. Second chapter is dedicated to three case studies, comparing the reality of those camps to the theoretical requirements. Third chapter is an attempt to rethink standarized configurations and placing of the communal spaces in those settlements.
What’s a Palazzina?
It is a building typology born in the last century in Rome and subsequently developed in different areas of the world. The idea behind this kind of building was to generate collective housing starting from the idea of a single-family villa; for this reason the building turned out to be a winning idea compared to many systems that are experienced in other parts of the world.
The characteristics that define it are:
• at least two overlooking the exterior for each dwelling
• at least one stairway / elevator body to the north that serves a landing to access the lodgings
• a space of property that surrounds it
Having established this, it is easy to see that a residential tissue of this type has a rather low density, but an excellent relationship with the exterior in terms of views and brightness within the building, approaching the best obtainable.
This kind of habitation, however, was born in a period in which the world was subject to various transformations, mainly due to the advent of the machine; the Palazzina typology was not exempt from this trend. This substantial change in the way of life led architects to design as a function of them, but nowadays the trend has changed. The attention to the machines has remarried towards the quality of life of spaces, towards ecology, putting man and his wellbeing in relation with the environment, at the center of the architectural debate. For this reason, the aim of this essay is toreview forms that were so successful in the past, adapting them to current times.
Analyzing the problem in a more concrete way, how did the centrality of the machine and the building speculation influence the design of the buildings in the past? What problems did they generate? How to solve them?
In the first instance it is necessary to start from the analysis of the current state, in such a way as to renew the model on a conceptual and non-normative level, since there are already many and very different regulations in force in every part of the world. The Italian and Spanish building regulations will be taken into consideration, with particular reference to the metropolitan area of Rome and the one of Barcelona, as cities displaying types of buildings of this type.
Let’s analyze a rectangular lot, free on three sides and facing a street. The seriality of the building can develop following the axes of the free sides, keeping for each element a street view. This simple example will be used to describe the current situation and describe the new proposal, the end of this essay.
Going into the details of the question, we analyze the first problem, that of street admittance using a road section similar to a district of buildings, such as the Parioli of Rome or Sarrià – Sant Gervasi in Barcelona, conducted orthogonally with respect to the progress of the road same.
As shown in the drawing, in the vast majority of cases there is a very small portion of the garden in front of the entrance, with a purely aesthetic purpose. It is, however, an interstitial space, a redundant filtering place between the street and the dwelling, as this role is already largely accomplished by the entrance to the ground floor. Because it is often south-facing, it is very sunny or noisy due to itsproximity to the roadway. The air is not healthy especially in this part of the garden, the relationship with the road is mediated by physical boundaries (gates or walls) that are more a shield than a simple limit.
By virtue of these considerations it is difficult to understand the usefulness of this portion of the garden, which could therefore be completely eliminated. Doing so would allow the road front to be the true limit of the building, but that’s not all. In doing so, in fact, the ground floor could become: addition of the urban fabric, a filter between the gardens of the buildings and the road front, a place for commercial activities, the entrance to an underground parking or much more to be exploited in the cases specific in different ways. Last but not least, we would have a precise location of the building with respect to the lot area, allowing to manage the remaining space according to the reflections that follow.
In secundis, it is absolutely necessary to reflect on the building area of the area in relation to the distance between buildings.
In Italy, the law states that a building should be at least 5 meters from the limit of the lot, the building area is therefore obtainable from this data. The Metropolitan Plan of Rome establishes that “the shape of the buildings in the section in the normal direction of the road must be contained in the inclined having abscissa the road width at the level of the sidewalk and for ordered five parts of the same width up to a maximum of 35 m in the peripheral part of the city, and three vehicles up to a maximum of 25 m in the central part “.
In Spain, the distance between adjacent buildings varies between three and five meters, depending on the building regulations, so as to comply with the hygiene rules laid down by the National Health Code, but generating the same problem.
The building area, in fact, appears as a territory of results to be exploited as much as possible interstitial space, which oscillates between 6 and 10 meters, has been sacrificed to generate parking for cars, despite the potential of this space are almost unlimited.
Following the first point of this essay, ie applying the ground-filter floor system, the machines could also flow into an underground car park, completely releasing the remaining part of the surface.
Once this space has been freed, the new potential must be fully exploited.
For this reason, it is useful to study the incidence of shadow on the facades of buildings. Knowing that this is an approximation, because the shadow acts differently depending on latitude, longitude, time of year and climate, as a rule we could develop a concept that every part of the garden is usable, naturally at different times of the day, perhaps providing aggregate activities for certain times in certain parts of the garden.
Limiting the building area for the buildings in places where building speculation can not harm more than it has already done, it would guarantee an excellent surface-to-green ratio, allowing the inhabitants of this new system to live immersed in the greenery, providing ‘possible union of these gardens, generating a linear park that crosses the urban fabric and allows the use of green by the inhabitants, safe, transforming this type of building from containers of souls to places with strong potential energy.
This process would lead to an expansion of the space around the buildings, lowering the density of housing, going against the current trend of concentrating a huge number of people in an ever smaller space. It should be remembered, however, that the part of the world that could implement such a kind of transformation, such as Asian, South American, Australian or African peoples, are still developing countries. This system could lead to a partial characterization of the new cities that will be born, generating neighborhoods where man is no longer willing to live in a beehive, but wants to get back into contact with nature and his fellow human beings, freeing his most ancestral instincts.
Pequeño estudio sobre proyectos de Co-Housing con tal de proyectar un espacio comunitario tipo para edificios de vivienda colectiva.
Las vivienda con corredor de acceso exterior son una tipos de edificios donde a cada apartamento se accede a traves de un corredor que puede ser un espacio abierto o serrado, de distintos tamaños, que forma parte del edificio o en parte desplazado.
En la historia de la arquitectura esto tipo de edificio nace como vivienda pùblica en quanto la construcion de una sola escalera de acceso a todos los apartamento era màs conveniente ecònomicamente. Aùn esto tipo es utilizado con formas muy distintas entres los exemplos. Si en algunos proyectos se busca privacidad por los apartamento con vistas sul corredor, otros proyectos niegan por completo esta privacidad y el corredor se vuelve en una ampliacion del apartamento.
IL CORRIDOIO DI ACCESSO ESTERNO: UN ELEMENTO DI DISTRIBUZIONE E DI
En aquesta tesis s’analitzen quatre blocs de pisos en concret on els vestíbuls i els replans tenen unes mides i formes determinades, però que no acostumen a ser les dimensions més còmodes o generoses possibles. Per aquest mateix motiu proposo unes proporcions més optimes que si es duguessin a terme millorarien aquests espais de transició.
En esta tesis se analizan cuatro bloques de pisos en concreto donde los vestíbulos y los rellanos tienen unas medidas y formas determinadas, pero que no suelen ser las dimensiones más cómodos o generosas posibles. Por este mismo motivo propongo unas proporciones más óptimas que de llevarse a cabo mejorarían estos espacios de transición.
In this thesis, four blocks of floors are analyzed in particular where the halls and landings have certain dimensions and forms, but which are not usually the most comfortable or generous dimensions possible. For this same reason I propose more optimal proportions that if they were carried out would improve these spaces of transition.
EMV housing is a social housing project located in the Villaverde district of southern Madrid, by David Chipperfield. The brief for the building was clearly defined: a U shaped block fifteen meters deep, eight storeys high and capped with a pitched roof, all within a 2000 square –meter footprint.
In contrast to some of the neighboring building projects, which adopted symmetrical, double-pitched roofs, the intention here was to create a design in which the façade and roof are brought into a more discreet dialogue and seem to merge together. A low, ingle pitch spans the majority of the block, while small secondary pitches bevel the building’s front edges, creating asymmetrical volumes that gently break with the traditional cuboid, also increasing habitable internal area.
The concrete panels of the façades range in tone from earthy pink to rusts ad ochres, creating a variegated pattern across the surface. Vertical windows punctuate the exterior with a rhythmic yet complex distribution where the horizontal spacing between windows for living rooms, bedrooms and kitchens, and vertical circulation within the building is not evident from the outside. Every window is simple balustrade. A slate-blue concrete portico, accompanied by small areas of soft landscaping, marks the entrance to the buildings.
En aquest treball d’investigació, exposaré les mesures mínimes d’un pàrquing segons diferents estudis. Una anàlisi de les estructures de pilars més regulars en aquests casos. Una recopilació de diferents tipus de pàrquings robotitzats i explicaré com construir un pàrquing en un edifici on les plantes dels habitatges no tenen una estructura com les analitzades.
En este trabajo de investigación, expondré las medidas mínimas de un parking según diferentes estudios. Un análisis de las estructuras de pilares más regulares en estos casos. Una recopilación de diferentes tipos de parkings robotizados y explicaré como construir un parking en un edificio donde las plantas de las viviendas no tienen una estructura como las analizadas.
In this work of research, I will expose the minimum measures of a parking as different studies. An analysis of the structures of pillars more regular in these cases. A compilation of different type of robotitzat parkings and I will explain how to built a parking in a building where its plants don’t have a structure like the analysed ones.
El treball complet està en el següent fitxer adjunt: pàrquings_Berenguer.Barbera.Joan
Joan Berenguer i Barberà
Oliveras Samitier Jordi
L’habitatge col·lectiu: Antecedents, realitzacions actuals i alternatives
1r Quadrimestre 2017-2018